[FFmpeg-devel] [PATCH] doc: Add initial documentation explaining undefined behavior and SUINT
jamrial at gmail.com
Sun Jul 16 02:55:02 EEST 2017
On 7/15/2017 2:57 PM, Michael Niedermayer wrote:
> Requested-by: Kieran Kunhya <kierank at obe.tv>
> Signed-off-by: Michael Niedermayer <michael at niedermayer.cc>
> doc/undefined.txt | 47 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 1 file changed, 47 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 doc/undefined.txt
> diff --git a/doc/undefined.txt b/doc/undefined.txt
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000000..957db3e2a9
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/doc/undefined.txt
> @@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
> +Undefined Behavior
> +In the C language, some operations are undefined, like signed integer overflow
> +dereferencing freed pointers, accessing outside allocated space, ...
> +Undefined Behavior must not occur in a C program, it is not safe even if the
> +output of undefined operations is unused. The unsaftey may seem nit picking> +but Optimizing compilers have in fact optimized code on the
> +no undefined Behavior occurs.
> +Optimizing code based on wrong assumtations can and has in some cases lead to
> +effects beyond the output of computations.
> +The signed integer overflow problem in speed critical code
> +Code which is highly optimized and works with signed integers sometimes has the
> +problem that some (invalid) inputs can trigger overflows (undefined behavior).
> +In these cases, often the output of the computation does not matter (as it is
> +from invalid input).
> +In some cases the input can be checked easily in others checking the input is
> +computationally too intensive.
> +In these remaining cases a unsigned type can be used instead of a signed type.
> +unsigned overflows are defined in C.
> +As we have above established there is a need to use "unsigned" sometimes in
> +computations which work with signed integers (which overflow).
> +Using "unsigned" for signed integers has the very significant potential to
> +cause confusion
> +as in
> +unsigned a,b,c;
> +The reader does not expect b to be semantically -5 here and if the code is
> +changed by maybe adding a cast, a division or other the signeness will almost
> +certainly be mistaken.
> +To avoid this confusion a new type was introduced, "SUINT" is the C "unsigned"
> +type but it holds a signed "int".
> +to use the same example
> +SUINT a,b,c;
> +here the reader knows that a,b,c are meant to be signed integers but for C
> +standard compliance / to avoid undefined behavior they are stored in unsigned
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